Euroopan sisämarkkinoiden seurauksena henkisen pääoman arvo nousee. Omaperäiset ja vähemmän omaperäiset ideat muuttuvat arvotavaraksi. Kun monopolit murretaan ja kilpailun esteet poistetaan, yrityksille jää vain vähän keinoja rakentaa kilpailuetuja. Teolliset suojamuodot ovat silloin aivan uudella tavalla vaikuttamassa taloudellisen toiminnan ehtoihin....
Vuoden 1991 paras business-kaupunki on Atlanta. Se on keskellä Yhdysvaltojen markkinoita, erinomaisten liikenneyhteyksien solmukohdassa. Yli kuudensadan yhdysvaltalaisen liike-elämän johtajan mukaan Atlanta on kaupunki, johon pääomat mieluiten muuttaisivat....
Harvardin strategiatutkija Samuel Huntington räjäytti viime kesänä ruutitynnyrin, kun Foreign Affairs julkaisi hänen analyysinsä supervaltojen jälkeisestä ajasta. Vapaan Lännen, Kommunistien ja Kolmannen maailman kolmijako ei enää käy maailmanselitykseksi. Se ei kerro Neuvostoliiton eikä Jugoslavian hajoamista, Bagdadin pommitusta, Intian mellakoita, eikä Euroopan integroitumista. Huntington ehdottaakin nyt uutta maailmankuvaa, joka perustuu sivilisaatioiden törmäyksille (The clash of civilizations?, Foreign Affairs, Summer 1993)....
Teollistuneet demokratiat ovat siirtymässä periferiaan. Vuonna 1950 teollisuusmaissa asui viidennes maapallon väestöstä. Parinkymmenen vuoden kuluttua nykyisissä teollisuusmaissa asuu enää kymmenesosa maapallon ihmisistä. Vain Japani ja USA tulevat olemaan maailman kahdenkymmenen suurimman maan joukossa....
Paul Krugman ja Karl Marx ovat talouden suuria teoreetikkoja. Krugman saattaa päästä taloushistoriaan 1900-luvun viimeisenä merkittävänä ajattelijana ja julistajana, ennen neo-marxilaisen talousteorian nousua....
Talouden kehitys on ihmeellistä. Talouden kasvu tuo työpaikkoja, purkaa eläkepommin, rahoittaa sosiaaliturvan, koulut ja valtioiden velat. Sillä ei ole syntymää, vanhuutta eikä kuolemaa. Se vain kasvaa ja kehittyy, välillä vähän notkahdellen....
Vuonna 1990 Kiinassa kulutettiin 100 kananmunaa henkeä kohti vuodessa. Neljän vuoden kuluttua kananmunia kulutetaan kaksinkertainen määrä. Näiden kanojen ruokkimiseen kuluu enemmän viljaa kuin Australia tuottaa....
Lester Thurow väittää, että teollistuneiden maiden väestön ikääntyminen on johtamassa demokratian ja hyvinvointivaltion tuhoon. Äänestyskykyiset eläkeläiset ovat tottuneet vaatimaan yhteiskunnalta palveluja. Seurauksena on ollut tulonsiirtojen huima keskittyminen eläkeläisille....
Marc Porat laski 1970-luvun lopulla, että vuodesta 1860 lähtien tietotyön määrä on kaksinkertaistunut USA:ssa vajaan 19 vuoden välein. Mikäli Poratin laskelmat olisivat oikeassa, ennen vuosituhannen vaihtumista kaikki amerikkalaiset ovat tietotyöläisiä....
Konsonanttihirviö Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi tuli kuuluisaksi tutkimalla ihmisiä, jotka pystyvät huippusuorituksiin. Csikzentmihalyin mukaan menestyksen salaisuus löytyi erityisestä toiminnan ja tajunnan tilasta. Kulttuurista ja alasta riippumatta ihmiset kuvasivat tätä tilaa samalla sanalla. Kun ylittää itsensä ja kaikki menee putkeen, toiminta muuttuu virtaamiseksi. Ihminen kadottaa itsensä ja löytää olemisensa tekojensa virrassa....
Suomi nousi pari vuotta sitten maailmankartalle Linuxin vetämänä. Amerikkalaiset journalistit tekevät nyt Suomeen pyhiinvaellusmatkoja löytääkseen syitä sille, miksi Suomesta tuli Internetin, Linuxin ...
Monta vuotta olemme saaneet lukea maailman lehdistöstä Suomen ihmeestä. Laman ja suurtyöttömyyden jälkimainingeissa se oli mukavaa. Internetin käyttöönotossa näytimme olevan muita maita edellä. Nuorison kännykkäkulttuuri oli maailmalla ihmetyksen aiheena. Päätöksentekijät ja vaikuttajat olivat yhtenä rintamana todistamassa, miten maasta tulee uuden ajan laboratorio....
James Tobinin vuonna 1978 ehdottama valuuttaliikkeiden vero on taas uutisissa. Maailmalla asian ympärille on ryhmittäytynyt kansalaisliikkeitä ja Suomessa se näkyy yhtenä Attac-liikkeen keskeisistä teemoista. Kotimaiset talouden asiantuntijat ovat kilvan todistelleet, että vero on ajatuksena huono ja käytännössä toteuttamiskelvoton....
Suomi siirtyi uuteen aikaan viime vuosikymmenellä. Vielä 1980-luvulla yhteiskunnan järjestelmät perustuivat ihmisten ennustettavaan elämänkaareen. Perheet olivat normaaleja, työ oli normaalia ja ihmiset olivat keskimäärin normaaleja. Elämä ja sen ehdot oli luokiteltavissa ikäkausien ja ammattien mukaan....
Did you ever think how innovation and new things can be formally described? What, exactly, is an innovation? This poster was presented at the 5th International Future-Oriented Technology Analysis conference in Brussels, 27 November 2014.
This is a brief place-holder for the work that I'm currently doing together with Aalto University.
This is the final draft of a "Think Piece" written for UNESCO Bangkok. It reviews some key results from recent research on neuroscience and brain studies and debates on
brain-based education, and reflects these in the context of sociocultural learning theories and relational biology. Probably the most important empirical finding in brain research has been that the structure of brain
depends on its use. This means that the brain cannot be accurately modeled as a computational or information processing system. In fact, this implies that the dominant cognitivist models of thinking and learning are on
the wrong track. In the paper I briefly note that "This observation has profound consequences that will shape theories of cognition in the decades to come."
This is the final draft of an article that was published in the European Journal of Education, 48(1), 2013, Special Issue on "ICT and Education: Taking stock of progress and looking
at the future," which I co-edited with Yves Punie and Lieve Van den Brande. The article has now
open access at the Wiley on-line library. keywords: open educational resources;
alternative learning models;
future of learning;
societal functions of education
Author's final draft of an article that was published in Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 24(8), 735–751.
Unpredictability has two main sources: epistemic uncertainty and ontological unpredictability. When disruptive and downstream innovation become frequent, ontological unpredictability
becomes increasingly important for innovation policy and strategy. The analysis of the nature of ontological unpredictability explains why future-oriented technology analysis and
foresight frequently fail to grasp socially and economically important technical developments, and clarifies the reasons why policy, strategy and future-oriented analysis need to
move beyond evidence-based approaches.
This is the second of Promethean Thinking Deeper Research Papers, with contributions from Stefan Bergheim, Riel Miller and myself. How can we measure productivity in
learning and education, and what the concept means when we now move from closed models of learning towards open learning?
My own section argues that we need capability-based models of productivity. It also tries to illustrate the rather controversial claim that classical and neoclassical theories of economics are structurally
unable to model value creation in learning and innovation-based economies. Learning models, in fact, provide a very interesting entry point for understanding how value is created.
They also highlight the various elements of value creation that are missed by conventional economic theory. One practical implication is that it would be a major mistake to use existing econometric models or data
to analyze productivity of education, or to compare the effectiveness of educational systems across countries.
These are my introductory remarks for the World Innovation Summit for Education (WISE 2011) debate on Supporting Collaboration Through Online Platforms, Doha, Qatar, 1-3 Nov. 2011.
Many initiatives on computer support for education have failed. Knowledge is difficult to transform into information and process with computers. This is because knowledge is contextual, and computers are really bad in contextual processing.
Computers, however, can also facilitate learning and knowledge creation as media. Open educational resources (OER) and open collaboration platforms will eventually revolutionize education as they enable socially distributed
and collaborative learning processes that are pedagogically radically more effective than traditional schooling. "OER is a revolutionary force. But it also needs a revolution to become real."
The Structures of Global Economy Require Re-Thinking
Again recovering an old article from my hard disk, published 5 September 1994 in Helsingin Sanomat. This is probably the first Finnish article proposing that we should take Tobin tax seriously. If over 90 per cent of global economic flows are unrelated
to the actual substance of economy, and the Tobin tax reduces these flows, the tax will reduce the measured size of the global economy. The result will be a global recession, both according to monetarists and Keynesians
– for the simple reason that economic theories cannot make a distinction between useful and useless economic activity. According to economic thinking, all contraction of economy is bad.
The cost of productivity
I retrieved an old article from my computer's deep memory, written in 1993 for Suomen Kuvalehti. It discusses the transformation of work and global economy, and is probably the first Finnish article to highlight the importance of
Daly & Cobb's work on ISEW (later GPI) in substituting GDP as a development indicator. Due to continuous productivity improvement, well-paid middle-class jobs are
globally disappearing and information technology is about to tenfold the efficiency of production of goods and services. The old industrial age is gone and growth-based policies need to be rethought. "Maybe we should simply accept the fact
that market economy simplifies the world too much. It is a prisoner of its history, an answer to a question of its own time, but powerless and incapable in addressing the challenges of the present."
Slides of my presentation at Future-Oriented Technology Analysis (FTA 2011) conference, Seville, 13 May 2011. Two different types of unpredictability make life interesting for foresight experts and innovation
researchers. One is the well-known challenge of complexity, which has to do with epistemic limitations. The other one is characterized here as deep unpredictability. It is produced by the emergence of
qualitatively new ontological domains. Ontological unpredictability strongly limits the usefulness of evidence-based policies.
This is a discussion paper for the Confederation of Finnish Industries EK -Oivallus project, written with Riel Miller. The main claim of the paper is that the education system is facing a transformation that is in many ways similar
to the one that created the current educational institutions and forms. The current educational system responds to the challenges created by the industrial mode of production. In the emerging Knowledge Society, education needs to respond to quite different
social needs. We may need less schooling in the Knowledge Society, not more. The most important educational policies will be about the information and communication infrastructure.
How should universities do strategic management, taking into account the profound changes now shaping the context of higher education? This will be published in The FOR-UNI Blueprint: A Blueprint for Organizing Foresight in Universities. Bucharest: Editura Academiei Române, pp. 47-64.
This is a short essay in Finnish, arguing that the conventional economic concept of productivity is an artefact of the industrial era, and inadequate for understanding growth in the current and future economy.
It was published as a "Sunday Debate" in Helsingin Sanomat, in a slightly shorter form, with a title Tuottavuudesta puhumiselle pitäisi määrätä haittavero. In current macroeconomic
models, the concept of productivity assumes a mechanistic system of production, with pre-defined inputs and outputs. Much of current value creation cannot be understood in this mechanistic frame,
and value is now increasingly created by creating it, not by extracting it from scarce natural resources. This is the essence of the meaning economy, and the difference between the old economy of scarcity and
the new economy of meaning. The key assumptions and problems of classical economy are increasingly irrelevant and inaccurate when we try to understand value creation in the knowledge society, and innovation, growth, and competition
policies need to be rethought. One possibile alternative is to start from the idea of capability expansion, and focus on development, instead of conventional growth and productivity.
Slides from my presentation at NetEffect workshop on innovation networks. In the multifocal downstream model, intercommunity interaction becomes a critical enabler and constraint for innovation. The presentation discusses the different interaction
mechanisms and the different types of innovation ecosystem dynamics they generate.
Slides from my presentation at FuMee 3 workshop, Paris, 21 May 2010. FuMee focuses on theoretical issues related to anticipatory systems, and is generally aimed at developing concepts and frameworks
that help us to understand what is the future and how it plays a role in what happens.
What did we learn from the Tekes Scenarios?
This is a summary of some ideas generated during our Scenario project done for the Finnish Technology Agency (Tekes), distributed at the joint management board meeting of Tekes and the Finnish Innovation Fund (Sitra).
Slides from my presentation at the Finnish Technology Agency (Tekes) Leadership Forum. The presentation gives some background on scenario work that I did for Tekes with Risto Linturi, Mika Mannermaa, Riel Miller, and Teppo Turkki.
This is Part IV of my out-of-print 1999 book: Corporate Knowledge: Theory and Practice of Intelligent Organizations.
The link to the table of contents is at the end of this page.
I put the text here as people now and then ask how they could access the book. This section includes, for example, my 1998 analysis of Nonaka's knowledge creation model.
Nonaka's thinking has considerably evolved since then, and my own analysis would also look somewhat different today. The section also introduces my 5-A knowledge creation model.
References for the book are here.
This is a short article that presents four alternative ways to manage boundaries between different local meaning systems:
1) transactions, 2) boundary objects, 3) dialogue, and 4) political processes. I had to write the paper under extraordinary unrealistic super-tight schedule, but it has a relatively decent intro and
the main argument should be visible already here.
Slides from my presentation at the Gothenburg IT-University. This is a 3-hour 70 slide presentation that both introduces the mainstream theories of von Hippel and Chesbrough and
discusses in more detail the foundations of some alternative theories (Nonaka et al. and my own multifocal model).
Slides from my presentation at the 'Visions of Future Computing and Communications Paradigms' session at ICT 2008, 25 November, Lyon. The argument was
that in the next couple of years we are about to see a major technology disruption that will create a radically new landscape for ICTs and the Information and Knowledge Society. The new paradigm
will be based on low-cost computing and reusable semiconductor intellectual property (IP) blocks that provide configurability and flexible allocation of processing between hardware and software.
Slides from a presentation that I gave at the 'Digital Challenges in Innovation Research' workshop at Temple University 26 September 2008, Philadelphia, and at Stanford, 2 October. The slides are from the full version, as presented
at Stanford. The study is based on analysis of a few thousand open source projects at SourceForge and about three hundred projects at OpenCores.org, which hosts logic designs for semiconductor virtual components, also known as IP cores.
Evaluation report for Tekes on the Finnish participation and networks in the EU 6th Framework Programme for Research. The work was done in a consortium where I wrote the ICT-related parts and the case on ARTEMIS.
I'm currently doing research on the future of embedded systems, semiconductor intellectual property cores, and the ARTEMIS Joint Technology Initiative.
Here is a link to a work-in-progress interactive timeline of the development of ARTEMIS:
(What do we talk about, when we talk about knowledge) Slides from my presentation at Dipoli course on Information Design. The presentation discussed the historical evolution of the knowledge society, the emerging business models, and the meaning-based view on knowledge and information. Most of the text slides are in Finnish...
Slides from my presentation at the EU eLearning 2007 Conference, Lisbon.
Does the concept of skills make sense in the world of future? Where did it come from? Do we need a more human-centric model for learning, where competences are socially and socio-technically distributed?
Abstract: The article presents ten theoretically substantiated “theses” on future education and learning, highlighting emerging trends that will shape educational systems. The focus is on the impact of innovation economy and knowledge society on learning. Specifically, the article elaborates the changing dynamics of production models since the first industrial revolution, arguing that in the last few years we have been in the midst of a globalization process that is qualitatively different from the earlier ones. This new model has consequences, for example, for skill demands and their regional distribution. More fundamentally, this “third globalisation” makes innovation the key source of economic value, pushing educational systems from adaptive towards creative learning models.
In implementing such creative pedagogies, traditional models of innovation become inadequate. The paper therefore describes recent developments in innovation research, and outlines a new theoretical view on innovation, which connects innovation with social change and learning. This “downstream” innovation model highlights the active and creative role of user communities in making innovations real. As the economic and social importance of “downstream” innovation is becoming increasingly visible, educational institutions and learning activity will change. Policymakers will have to answer the question: Why do we need education in the future?
Working draft, the final version appeared in European Journal of Education, 42(2) pp.235-254, June 2007
Presentation slides from my keynote at SummIT'07, Odense, Denmark. There will also be some video material available from the conference web site later. The conference was organized by the Knowledge Lab. Most of the presentations on the conference site are in Danish.
A report written for the OECD Centre for Educational Research and Innovation. "This report describes ongoing initiatives and underlying concepts in the area of open educational resources (OER). The aim of the report is to elaborate the concept of open educational resources, and provide a practically useful and theoretically solid definition of open educational resources." The link is to the the final draft. I think the main contribution is on pp. 30-36. Three interrelated concepts need to be defined: one for learning (I use a pedagogic view that combines individual and social development), one for openness (I distinguish three levels), and one for resource (for the OER definition I distinguish traditional goods, common pools, and non-rival fountains of goods). In practice, there are many valid and coherent ways of using the term openness in the OER context. Openness at "level 3" is perhaps most interesting, as it assumes collective contributions. The final OECD summary report (Giving Knowledge for Free, OECD 2007) skipped my argument about a Mertonian process for defining such collective contributions, probably because its relevance was not very clearly argued. Social evaluation of contributions is necessary, however. This is because, in my view, knowledge exists only as a social phenomenon. "Contribution" can only be distinguished from a "non-contribution" using social quality criteria implemented in a social process. I use the Mertonian approach to put a social theory of knowledge back into the theory of development and learning, without making extra assumptions about the "truthfullness," "empirical validity" etc., of the contributions. Knowledge, therefore, can be local to a specific culture and social practice, historical, and context dependent, but only if it is validated using the internal criteria available in the social practice in question. That’s how Wikipedia, for example, can distinguish spam and forgeries from real contributions.
This is a paper written for the EU Joint Research Centre, IPTS, FISTERA project. The full FISTERA (Foresight on Information Society Technologies in the European Research Area) report "The Future of Information Society in Europe" is now available through the JRC-IPTS site. The full report includes also contributions from Emilio Fontela, Jeremy Millard, Carlota Pérez, Luc Soete, Erik Reinert, and John Zysman and Tobias Schulze-Cleven.
(The decade(s) of Knowledge Science) Slides from a keynote at the Finnish annual Knowledge Forum. The presentation discussed the past 14 years of knowledge management, tried to summarize what are the new things we have learned, and described some potential future developments. Most of the content is in English.
Slides from a presentation at the VRT Media Morgen: Het Congress.
The conference was organized to discuss the future public service contract of VRT, the public broadcasting company of Flemish-speaking Belgium.
Summary report written for Hitachi Science and Technology Forum, where I moderated a discussion group on Security, Safety, and Digital Divide.
This will be published in a slightly shorter version on the Hitachi Science and Technology Forum site in the near future.
First Monday asked for a short comment for
their special issue on open source. "What,
then, would be the most important thing
we learned, with the most fundamental
impact and consequences in the coming years?
Most probably, it is the fact that we need
to redesign intellectual property rights."
Slides from my presentation at the XV Economic
Forum. Behind the link, you'll find also
the other presentations in the session. The
discussion was about the long-wave interpretation
of economic development, driven by key technologies.
The focus was on Perez's interpretation of
the Schumpeterian model and its implications
for the development of the Knowledge Society
in the new EU member states. Krynica, Poland.
Slides from the kick-off presentation at the High-Level Group on Foresight on Information Society Technologies in the European Research Area (FISTERA) workshop. Asks what new can we say about information society, innovation, globalisation, learning, work and productivity.
Presented at Foro de la Innovación y Modernización en Andalucía Málaga, 14 December 2004. The paper complements existing analyses on achieving the Lisbon goals of growth and competitiveness in Europe, and discusses emerging new approaches.
A presentation on the development of broadband in the Republic of Korea, given in the BroadBand Europe conference, 8 December 2004, Brugge. The conference was organised by the BREAD Broadband for All coordination action.
In the mid-1990s I was developing new methods and tools for distributed knowledge creation and organizational knowledge management. One of the ideas was to merge research on communities of practice and sociocultural theories of learning. My team worked in this area with several leading researchers, including people who were designing new collaboration tools at the Lotus Institute (now IBM). The linked paper was written in 1997. It makes some points that are relevant for the developers of the semantic net, knowledge ontologies, and communities of practice.
Appears in November 2004 in Framework, as an opening essay on innovation, ethics and social space. "Framework is a discursive forum that opens a space for a variety of visual material, as well as extensive articles, analyses and international commentaries."
Paper presented at the Unesco 21st Century Dialog on "Building Knowledge Societies," Seoul, 28 July 2004. A conference organized in the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the Korean National Commission for UNESCO and the visit of the Director-General of UNESCO to the Republic of Korea. Talks about the historical roots of intellectual property rights and their impact on innovation and social development. The presentation slides complement the text by including material on the social foundations of knowledge, links to social learning literature, etc.
The paper examines critically and in some theoretical and empirical detail the concepts and methods of ICT productivity studies. It shows why the current analytical techniques do not allow quantification of the productivity impacts of ICTs, and discusses the reasons why we may need a new productivity paradigm.
Working paper written for "Networks of Knowledge: Research and Policy for the Knowledge-Based Economy." Workshop organised by the European Commission, the National Science Foundation, the OECD and the University of Michigan, Brussels, 7-8 June 2004. The workshop papers can also be accessed through the DG INFSO High-Level Socio-Economic Group site.
Published in the IPTS Report special issue, June 2004. A concise summary of the main limitations of current methods to analyze the productivity impact of ICTs, written for a policy-oriented general audience. Shows that the observed ICT productivity impact has to a large extent been created by hedonic price indices that have substantially increased the value and growth rate of computer asset estimates that are used in productivity calculations.
"...presents time-series data that can be extracted from the
Linux Credits files and discusses methodological challenges of automatic
extraction of research data from open source files. The extracted data
is used to describe the geographical expansion of the core Linux developer
community." First Monday, June 2004
The paper also comments a recent Alexis de Tocqueville Institution
report that used the working paper version of this article to argue
that Linus Torvalds probably was not the inventor of Linux.
The Tocqueville report also borrowed my Networks of Innovation, where I studied the history of the World Wide Web, packet switching technology, Linux, etc., and where I pointed out that the conventional inventor model does not work too well for networked and systemic innovations. In fact, contrary to the conclusions made by the Tocqueville authors, I argued that this is one reason why we should rethink the patent system. Historically, it is more accurate to say that Berners-Lee didn't invent the Web (quite accurate) than to argue that Linus didn't create Linux (quite inaccurate). The point, however, is that a careful analysis shows that we need to revise both the concept of inventor and innovation to address software and Internet related innovations.
From the editorial: The final paper in the Special Section, "Data Is More Than Knowledge: Implications of the Reversed Knowledge Hierarchy for Knowledge Management and Organizational Memory," by Ilkka Tuomi, is one of the most provocative we have seen in years. In a very readable and convincing argument, the author challenges one of the pillars of our discipline ...Perhaps, as Tuomi asserts, people do first perceive the world as knowledge, then codify and formalize that knowledge, and then with more effort parse it into data structures that exactly define its meaning. Only then, he asserts, can it be manipulated by computers. ...You may agree or disagree with the author, but either way you will find his paper highly engaging. We find that it has already broadened the way we think about issues ranging from systems analysis to Third Normal Forms.Journal of Management Information Systems Vol 16 No. 3, pp. 103-118
In Exponential Growth an Illusion?: Response to Ilkka Tuomi, Ray Kurzweil comments two of my papers that discuss the development of semiconductor and computing technology. Kurzweil used his response in his Accelerating Change Conference plenary keynote 14 September 2003, where we also had a debate on Kurzweil’s hypothesis. The first paper was my First Monday article on Moore’s Law and the latter paper was written as a background paper for the conference (see below). Kurzweil’s comments now give me an opportunity to clarify some apparently confusing points.
This is a working paper that discusses Ray Kurzweil's hypothesis of accelerating rate of technical progress in computing. The paper is based on a set of unpublished papers that cover Kurzweil's argument more broadly, including the claim that technological development can be understood as an evolutionary process. The linked paper focuses on semiconductors and semiconductor industry, but also makes some comments on generic claims of technological change. It provides some starting points for my comments at the Accelerating Change Conference, Stanford, September 12-14, 2003.
Paper presented at the COST 269 Conference: "The Good, The Bad, and The Irrelevant," Helsinki 3-5 September 2003. It proposes that we should take social practice as the focus of design of functional (i.e. technological) products, and understand their nature as social objects. This requires that we build social learning models into design processes. The paper uses a "socio-cognitive" coffee cup as an example to illustrate the social nature of objects, further developing ideas that I presented at the UC Berkeley Institute for Design / Human-Centric Computing retreat in June 2002. The paper was published in a slightly edited form as Tuomi, I. (2005) Beyond User-Centric Models of Product Creation. In: Haddon, L. et al. (eds.) Everyday Innovators: Researching the Role of Users in Shaping ICT's. Springer, pp. 21-38.
Slides from my presentation at the European Commission, DG Information
Society, Brussels, 20 February 2003. The presentation focused on the
open source innovation model and discussed the extensibility
of this model, as well some potential policy implications.
Slides from my presentation at "Social and Human Capital in the Knowledge
Society: Policy Implications," Brussels 28-29 October 2002. The conference
was organized by the Directorate General Employment and Social Affairs.
Related to the theme a couple of complementary papers: Work,
Technology and Competence: Aspects of the History and the Future of
Work. This was a keynote at the European Conference on Adult Education
and Vocational Training, Tampere 18 November 1999. A more general overview
of issues on organizational learning and knowledge management is: Learning
And Knowing in Organizations. For a recent overview of the history
and emerging issues of knowledge management, see "The Future of Knowledge
This working paper was distributed in Berkeley and Stanford in April
2000. It describes organizational, institutional, economic, cultural,
and cognitive aspects of the open source development model. Its analysis
has been extended and updated for Networks of Innovation (below). I
put it on the net for the US-EU
workshop on open source as I mention it in my statement "Open Source for
Studies the history of Moore's Law and looks for evidence for its various
versions. "Semiconductor technology has during the last four decades
evolved under very special economic conditions. Contrary to common and
widely spread claims, Moore's Law actually never was valid and it has
not been driving developments in the semiconductor industry or information
technology." First Monday, November, 2002
These slides were presented at the kick-off meeting of the ESTO "Tigers"
project, August 20, 2002. The included 36 slides describe some basic
historical facts and milestones in the Finnish information society development,
discuss the reasons why Nokia successfully transformed itself in the
1990s, highlight a couple of challenges, and propose one approach that
could be used to evaluate information society development.
This was a presentation given at the Helsinki University of Art and
Design, for the joint conference of the Humantec and IDIA thematic networks.
The presentation starts from a macro-level question: why ICT doesn't
seem to appear in economic statistics? It makes a brief "ethnographic"
study of Microsoft images that illustrate knowledge work, discovering
the most important tool for knowledge work, the social and cognitive
coffee cup. The presentation argues that all objects are social objects. I refined some of these ideas also for a presentation at
the UC Berkeley Institute for Design / Human-Centric Computing retreat,
Lake Tahoe, June 2002.
A study where I tried to find information society research
topics that today seem peripheral but which could become central in
the next five years. This was done as background work for the Finland-Berkeley
Information Technology and Society research program. The report
is available in paper format from Tekes, the Finnish Technology Agency.
Parts of the report are currently being translated to German and will
appear in 2002.
An informal and somewhat provocative discussion paper on Digital Divide.
I presented it at the UC Berkeley Human-Centric Computing retreat, July
2000. The paper seems to be getting relevant again. It starts with the
line: "If we study available evidence, the digital divide is closing
rapidly." The main point is that we need to move beyond a simplistic
technology-focused view on DD. Instead, we need to address access to
meaningful social interaction, access to economically useful resources,
and access to individual development. I'm currently planning to write
a revised version of this paper where I try to show how, exactly, technology
is relevant. Indeed, it has a lot of relevance, but this has little
to do with access to PCs or the net. More on that later...
Inspired by Stephen Wolfram's recent book (see Levy: The
Man Who Cracked the Code to Everything) I dug into the depths of
my hard disk and recovered an old paper, from 1988. It shows why Wolfram's
project can never succeed. The paper argues that only few special types
of problems can be solved by algorithmic computer programs and that
most natural phenomena fall beyond this class of problems. The paper
also describes the starting problem of Turing machines which makes it,
in general, impossible to start the computation if the result of the
computation needs to have some useful accuracy. The problem with the
Wolfram universe, therefore, is not only how to program it, but also
how to describe the data it is supposed to operate on. A few comments
on Wolfram and the history of the paper are available here.
1999 My previous book was Corporate Knowledge: Theory and Practice of Intelligent
Organizations, Metaxis, 1999. Abstract,
TOC, and Intro are available here. There is also a wikipedia entry, written by someone who seems to understand what he/she is writing about.
Some people ask how to get hold of the book.
I was planning to rewrite it for an international
publisher, so the distribution was only through
the Academic Bookstore, Helsinki. The book is now out of print
but available through some libraries (ISBN
951-98280-0-1; 453 pages)
last updated: December 2014
(and written in HTML, for fun... Ain't it retro...)